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The Method to calculate solar power battery capacity

Amy / 2011-05-07
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The Method to calculate solar power battery capacity

The period of changes of the earth’s sunshine and radiation is 24 hours. In a square area of ​​solar generating capacity changes also has 24h of cyclical. This rules are the same as sun radiation in the region. But the changes in the weather will influence the phalanx of generating capacity. If you have a few days consecutive rainy, the square continuous can hardly generate electricity. And then you can only get power by batteries. After the batteries deep discharge, we need to charge them full soon. Most of designers mainly get the total daily solar radiation energy or the annual average sunshine hour data from the meteorological station. Because the data is different from different year in the same region, they choose the smallest data in the last ten years. According to the power consumption of the load, with the sunshine and without the sunshine, we all need battery-powered. The data of sunshine radiation and total sunshine hours which are provided b the meteorological is indispensable for determining the size of the battery capacity.
For the solar cell phalanx, load should include all power consumption device in the system (with the exception of appliances and battery and wiring, the controller etc.) consumption. The output power of the phalanx with components number of parallel is to obtain relevant, series of the work necessary to voltage, parallel is to gain needed work current, the appropriate number of components needed to pass the series-parallel namely composition phalanx solar cells.
Battery capacity design
Solar power system energy storage device is primarily the accumulator. And solar battery phalanx of battery usually work in supporting condition, the floating filling capacity and load voltage with the phalanx of electricity changes. Its capacity required power than load. Provide energy battery yet suffer environmental temperatures. In order to match, the requirement with solar cell battery long working life and simple maintenance.
1.    Chooses the battery
There are many kinds of batteries which can be used together with solar cells. At present, the most widely using batteries are 3 kinds: lead-acid battery, general maintenance free of lead-acid batteries and alkaline ni-cd battery. In China, Lead-acid batteries are widely used because of its inherent "exempt" maintenance characteristic and the characteristics of less pollution to the environment. They are very suitable for reliable performance of solar power system, especially the unattended workstations. Duo to the bigger environmental pollution and more maintenance demands, the ordinary lead-acid batteries mainly suitable for a maintenance or low-grade applications. Alkaline ni-cd battery although have good low temperature, overcharge, put performance, but because of its price is higher, applies only to more special occasions.
 2. Battery capacity calculation.
Battery capacity to ensure continuous power supply is very important. In one year, each month, square, there was a big difference between capacities. The phalanx of generating capacity in cannot meet the need of electricity in, want to rely on battery power to complement; In more than a month of electricity needed by battery, excess electricity stockpiled. So the phalanx of deficiency and excess capacity battery capacity to determine value is one of the bases. Similarly, the load during continuous rainy days electricity must also obtained from the battery. So, this is the power consumption during one of the factors that determine the battery capacity.
Therefore, battery capacity calculation formula for: BC. BC=A×QL×NL×TO/CC       
In this formula:  
A is safety coefficient, taken the value between 1.1 and 1.4;
QL is the average daily power consumption for load. It is working current multiplied by day working hours;
NL is the longest continuous rainy days;
TO is the temperature correction coefficient. It often takes 1 if above 0 ℃, take 1.1 if above -10 ℃, take 1.2 if below -10 ℃.
CC is the battery discharge depth, general lead-acid batteries take 0.75, alkaline ni-cd batteries take 0.85.
Solar battery phalanx design
1.    Solar modules series number Ns
Solar cell module according to a certain number, you will receive a chaining together of the work necessary to voltage, however, solar modules number must be appropriately of the series. Series number too little, series voltage is lower than battery charging pressure, float to phalanx cannot battery. If serial number too much to make the output voltage is far higher than float charging pressure, charging current also won't have obvious increase. Therefore, only when the solar cell module of series voltage is equal to appropriate float charging pressure, can achieve the best charging status.
     Calculation methods are as follows :Ns=UR/Uoc=(Uf+UD+Uc)/Uoc(2)
Type: UR for solar battery output minimum voltage phalanx;
Uoc for the best working voltage of solar modules;
Uf for battery charging pressure; floating
UD for diode pressure drop, generally take 0.7 V; For the other factor of UC caused pressure drop.
Battery charging pressure and float selected battery parameters, the lowest temperature should be equal to the selected battery monomer maximum working voltage multiplied by the number of series battery.
2. Solar modules are parallel several Np
In determining the NP, we determine first before the calculation method of the relative amount.
(1) will solar cells, the solar installation site phalanx, convert radiation Ht in standard light intensity the average day under the radiation hours H: H = Ht x 2.778/10000h (3) type: 2.778/10,000 (H & # 39; m2 / day for kJ) will be corrected for standard light radiation 1000W/m2) strong (the average day under the coefficient of radiation hours.
(2) solar cell module generating capacity, Qp
Type: Ioc for solar modules are the best working current;
Kop for cant correction coefficient;
Cz for correction factor, mainly for combination, attenuation, dust, charging efficiency loss, generally take 0.8.
(3)Nw is the shortest interval days between two groups of the longest continuous rainy days. Nw is unique, and main consideration to in this period of time will lose money battery power added up, the battery capacity needed to supplement Bcb
(4) solar cell module parallel calculation method of several Np for: Np = (Bcb + Nw x from QL) / (Qp x Nw) (6) expression meaning is: parallel number of groups of solar cells in two groups, the shortest interval between YinYuTian consecutive days, not only in use for load capacity, still need to complement the longest continuous YinYuTian battery in power in losses.
3. Solar battery square power calculation
According to solar modules, can draw the series-parallel number needed for solar cell square power P:
P=Po×Ns×NpW    (7)
Type: Po for solar modules are rated power.
Design example
Taking A ground satellite receiving station as an example, the load voltage of power of 25W, 12V, every day, the longest continuous work for 24h rainy days 15d, two longest continuous rainy days shortest interval Numbers as 30d, solar battery USES the rainy days semiconductor devices factory 38D975 x 400 type components, for 38W component standards power, working voltage weaker V, working current lead-acid battery using A 2.22, maintenance free float charging pressure for battery, plus or minus 1) V (14. Its horizontal plane solar radiation data refer to table 1, the average day in horizontal plane for 12110 (radiation kJ/m2), for 0.885 Kop value for 16.13 ° Angle, the best solar cells, computing power and storage battery capacity square.
1. The battery capacity Bc
2. Solar battery phalanx powerP
Because :Ns=UR/Uoc=(Uf+UD+UC)/Uoc=(14+0.7+)/17.1=0.92≈1Qp=Ioc×H×Kop×Cz=2.22×12110×(2.778/10000)×0.885×0.8≈5.29AhBcb=A×QL×NL=1.2×24×15=900AhQL=(25/12)×24=50Ah
            So solar battery power of square :P=Po×Ns×Np=38×1×15=570W
3. Calculation results of this ground satellite receiving station need solar battery power of 570W phalanx, battery capacity for 1200Ah.

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